The first company that issued shares was the United East India Company (VOC) in 1606
The shares were registered for more than 6 million guilders, a huge amount for that time
The proceeds were investing equipping the first ships that sailed to the East.
The founders did not have the ability to raise sufficient money to head out sailing as the entire fleet of merchant ships had to be built and equipped.
Moreover, people were still at war with the Portuguese who regularly hijacked or sunk ships. The initial investors in shares did not get rich because the VOC made considerable losses.
The first profits only came in 1610.